26 F
Chicago
Thursday, December 1, 2022

Joining the Transformer Encoder and Decoder, and Masking

Must read


We have arrived to a point where we have implemented and tested the Transformer encoder and decoder separately, and we may now join the two together into a complete model. We will also be seeing how to create padding and look-ahead masks by which we will be suppressing the input values that we will not be considering in either of the encoder or decoder computations. Our end goal remains the application of the complete model to Natural Language Processing (NLP).

In this tutorial, you will discover how to implement the complete Transformer model, and create padding and look-ahead masks. 

After completing this tutorial, you will know:

  • How to create a padding mask for the encoder and decoder. 
  • How to create a look-ahead mask for the decoder. 
  • How to join the Transformer encoder and decoder into a single model. 
  • How to print out a summary of the encoder and decoder layers. 

Let’s get started. 

Joining the Transformer Encoder and Decoder, and Masking
Photo by John O’Nolan, some rights reserved.

Tutorial Overview

This tutorial is divided into four parts; they are:

  • Recap of the Transformer Architecture
  • Masking
    • Creating a Padding Mask
    • Creating a Look-Ahead Mask
  • Joining the Transformer Encoder and Decoder
  • Creating an Instance of the Transformer Model
    • Printing Out a Summary of the Encoder and Decoder Layers

Prerequisites

For this tutorial, we assume that you are already familiar with:

Recap of the Transformer Architecture

Recall having seen that the Transformer architecture follows an encoder-decoder structure: the encoder, on the left-hand side, is tasked with mapping an input sequence to a sequence of continuous representations; the decoder, on the right-hand side, receives the output of the encoder together with the decoder output at the previous time step, to generate an output sequence.

The Encoder-Decoder Structure of the Transformer Architecture
Taken from “Attention Is All You Need

In generating an output sequence, the Transformer does not rely on recurrence and convolutions.

We have seen how to implement the Transformer encoder and decoder separately. In this tutorial, we will be joining the two into a complete Transformer model, and applying padding and look-ahead masking to the input values.  

Let’s start first by discovering how to apply masking. 

Masking

Creating a Padding Mask

We have already familiarized ourselves with the importance of masking the input values before feeding them into the encoder and decoder. 

As we will see when we proceed to train the Transformer model, the input sequences that will be fed into the encoder and decoder will first be zero-padded up to a specific sequence length. The importance of having a padding mask is to make sure that these zero values are not processed along with the actual input values by both the encoder and decoder. 

Let’s create the following function to generate a padding mask for both the encoder and decoder:

from tensorflow import math, cast, float32

def padding_mask(input):
    # Create mask which marks the zero padding values in the input by a 1
    mask = math.equal(input, 0)
    mask = cast(mask, float32)

    return mask

Upon receiving an input, this function will generate a tensor that marks by a value of one wherever the input contains a value of zero.  

Hence, if we input the following array:

from numpy import array

input = array([1, 2, 3, 4, 0, 0, 0])
print(padding_mask(input))

Then the output of the padding_mask function would be the following:

tf.Tensor([0. 0. 0. 0. 1. 1. 1.], shape=(7,), dtype=float32)

Creating a Look-Ahead Mask

A look-ahead mask is required in order to prevent the decoder from attending to succeeding words, such that the prediction for a particular word can only depend on known outputs for the words that come before it.

For this purpose, let’s create the following function to generate a look-ahead mask for the decoder:

from tensorflow import linalg, ones

def lookahead_mask(shape):
    # Mask out future entries by marking them with a 1.0
    mask = 1 - linalg.band_part(ones((shape, shape)), -1, 0)

    return mask

We will pass to it the length of the decoder input. Let’s take this length to be equal to 5, as an example:

print(lookahead_mask(5))

Then the output that the lookahead_mask function returns is the following:

tf.Tensor(
[[0. 1. 1. 1. 1.]
 [0. 0. 1. 1. 1.]
 [0. 0. 0. 1. 1.]
 [0. 0. 0. 0. 1.]
 [0. 0. 0. 0. 0.]], shape=(5, 5), dtype=float32)

Again, the one values mask out the entries that should not be used. In this manner, the prediction of every word only depends on those that come before it. 

Joining the Transformer Encoder and Decoder

Let’s start by creating the class, TransformerModel, that inherits from the Model base class in Keras:

class TransformerModel(Model):
    def __init__(self, enc_vocab_size, dec_vocab_size, enc_seq_length, dec_seq_length, h, d_k, d_v, d_model, d_ff_inner, n, rate, **kwargs):
        super(TransformerModel, self).__init__(**kwargs)

        # Set up the encoder
        self.encoder = Encoder(enc_vocab_size, enc_seq_length, h, d_k, d_v, d_model, d_ff_inner, n, rate)

        # Set up the decoder
        self.decoder = Decoder(dec_vocab_size, dec_seq_length, h, d_k, d_v, d_model, d_ff_inner, n, rate)

        # Define the final dense layer
        self.model_last_layer = Dense(dec_vocab_size)
        ...

Our first step in creating the TransformerModel class is to initialize instances of the Encoder and Decoder classes that we had implemented earlier, and assigning their outputs to the variables, encoder and decoder, respectively. If you had saved these classes in separate Python scripts, do not forget to import them. I had saved my code in the Python scripts, encoder.py and decoder.py, and hence I need to import them accordingly. 

We are also including one final dense layer that produces the final output, as in the Transformer architecture of Vaswani et al (2017). 

Next, we shall create the class method, call(), to feed the relevant inputs into the encoder and decoder.

A padding mask is first generated to mask the encoder input, as well as the encoder output when this is fed into the second self-attention block of the decoder:

...
def call(self, encoder_input, decoder_input, training):

    # Create padding mask to mask the encoder inputs and the encoder outputs in the decoder
    enc_padding_mask = self.padding_mask(encoder_input)
...

A padding mask as well as a look-ahead mask are, then, generated to mask the decoder input. These are combined together through an element-wise maximum operation:

...
# Create and combine padding and look-ahead masks to be fed into the decoder
dec_in_padding_mask = self.padding_mask(decoder_input)
dec_in_lookahead_mask = self.lookahead_mask(decoder_input.shape[1])
dec_in_lookahead_mask = maximum(dec_in_padding_mask, dec_in_lookahead_mask)
...

Next, the relevant inputs are fed into the encoder and decoder, and the Transformer model output is generated by feeding the decoder output into one final dense layer:

...
# Feed the input into the encoder
encoder_output = self.encoder(encoder_input, enc_padding_mask, training)

# Feed the encoder output into the decoder
decoder_output = self.decoder(decoder_input, encoder_output, dec_in_lookahead_mask, enc_padding_mask, training)

# Pass the decoder output through a final dense layer
model_output = self.model_last_layer(decoder_output)

return model_output

Combining all steps together, gives us the following complete code listing:

from encoder import Encoder
from decoder import Decoder
from tensorflow import math, cast, float32, linalg, ones, maximum, newaxis
from tensorflow.keras import Model
from tensorflow.keras.layers import Dense


class TransformerModel(Model):
    def __init__(self, enc_vocab_size, dec_vocab_size, enc_seq_length, dec_seq_length, h, d_k, d_v, d_model, d_ff_inner, n, rate, **kwargs):
        super(TransformerModel, self).__init__(**kwargs)

        # Set up the encoder
        self.encoder = Encoder(enc_vocab_size, enc_seq_length, h, d_k, d_v, d_model, d_ff_inner, n, rate)

        # Set up the decoder
        self.decoder = Decoder(dec_vocab_size, dec_seq_length, h, d_k, d_v, d_model, d_ff_inner, n, rate)

        # Define the final dense layer
        self.model_last_layer = Dense(dec_vocab_size)

    def padding_mask(self, input):
        # Create mask which marks the zero padding values in the input by a 1.0
        mask = math.equal(input, 0)
        mask = cast(mask, float32)

        # The shape of the mask should be broadcastable to the shape
        # of the attention weights that it will be masking later on
        return mask[:, newaxis, newaxis, :]

    def lookahead_mask(self, shape):
        # Mask out future entries by marking them with a 1.0
        mask = 1 - linalg.band_part(ones((shape, shape)), -1, 0)

        return mask

    def call(self, encoder_input, decoder_input, training):

        # Create padding mask to mask the encoder inputs and the encoder outputs in the decoder
        enc_padding_mask = self.padding_mask(encoder_input)

        # Create and combine padding and look-ahead masks to be fed into the decoder
        dec_in_padding_mask = self.padding_mask(decoder_input)
        dec_in_lookahead_mask = self.lookahead_mask(decoder_input.shape[1])
        dec_in_lookahead_mask = maximum(dec_in_padding_mask, dec_in_lookahead_mask)

        # Feed the input into the encoder
        encoder_output = self.encoder(encoder_input, enc_padding_mask, training)

        # Feed the encoder output into the decoder
        decoder_output = self.decoder(decoder_input, encoder_output, dec_in_lookahead_mask, enc_padding_mask, training)

        # Pass the decoder output through a final dense layer
        model_output = self.model_last_layer(decoder_output)

        return model_output

Note that we have performed a small change to the output that is returned by the padding_mask function, such that its shape is made broadcastable to the shape of the attention weight tensor that it will be masking when we train the Transformer model. 

Creating an Instance of the Transformer Model

We will be working with the parameter values specified in the paper, Attention Is All You Need, by Vaswani et al. (2017):

h = 8  # Number of self-attention heads
d_k = 64  # Dimensionality of the linearly projected queries and keys
d_v = 64  # Dimensionality of the linearly projected values
d_ff = 2048  # Dimensionality of the inner fully connected layer
d_model = 512  # Dimensionality of the model sub-layers' outputs
n = 6  # Number of layers in the encoder stack

dropout_rate = 0.1  # Frequency of dropping the input units in the dropout layers
...

As for the input-related parameters, we will be working with dummy values for the time being until we arrive to the stage of training the complete Transformer model, at which point we will be using actual sentences:

...
enc_vocab_size = 20 # Vocabulary size for the encoder
dec_vocab_size = 20 # Vocabulary size for the decoder

enc_seq_length = 5  # Maximum length of the input sequence
dec_seq_length = 5  # Maximum length of the target sequence
...

We can proceed to create an instance of the TransformerModel class as follows:

from model import TransformerModel

# Create model
training_model = TransformerModel(enc_vocab_size, dec_vocab_size, enc_seq_length, dec_seq_length, h, d_k, d_v, d_model, d_ff, n, dropout_rate)

The complete code listing is as follows:

enc_vocab_size = 20 # Vocabulary size for the encoder
dec_vocab_size = 20 # Vocabulary size for the decoder

enc_seq_length = 5  # Maximum length of the input sequence
dec_seq_length = 5  # Maximum length of the target sequence

h = 8  # Number of self-attention heads
d_k = 64  # Dimensionality of the linearly projected queries and keys
d_v = 64  # Dimensionality of the linearly projected values
d_ff = 2048  # Dimensionality of the inner fully connected layer
d_model = 512  # Dimensionality of the model sub-layers' outputs
n = 6  # Number of layers in the encoder stack

dropout_rate = 0.1  # Frequency of dropping the input units in the dropout layers

# Create model
training_model = TransformerModel(enc_vocab_size, dec_vocab_size, enc_seq_length, dec_seq_length, h, d_k, d_v, d_model, d_ff, n, dropout_rate)

Printing Out a Summary of the Encoder and Decoder Layers

We may also print out a summary of the encoder and decoder blocks of the Transformer model. The choice to print them out separately is to be able to see the details of their individual sub-layers. In order to do so, we will be adding the following line of code to the __init__() method of both the EncoderLayer and DecoderLayer classes:

self.build(input_shape=[None, sequence_length, d_model])

Then we need to add the following method to EncoderLayer class:

def build_graph(self):
    input_layer = Input(shape=(self.sequence_length, self.d_model))
    return Model(inputs=[input_layer], outputs=self.call(input_layer, None, True))

And the following method to the DecoderLayer class:

def build_graph(self):
    input_layer = Input(shape=(self.sequence_length, self.d_model))
    return Model(inputs=[input_layer], outputs=self.call(input_layer, input_layer, None, None, True))

This results in the EncoderLayer class being modified as follows (the three dots under the call() method mean that this remains the same as the one that we had implemented here):

from tensorflow.keras.layers import Input
from tensorflow.keras import Model

class EncoderLayer(Layer):
    def __init__(self, sequence_length, h, d_k, d_v, d_model, d_ff, rate, **kwargs):
        super(EncoderLayer, self).__init__(**kwargs)
        self.build(input_shape=[None, sequence_length, d_model])
        self.d_model = d_model
        self.sequence_length = sequence_length
        self.multihead_attention = MultiHeadAttention(h, d_k, d_v, d_model)
        self.dropout1 = Dropout(rate)
        self.add_norm1 = AddNormalization()
        self.feed_forward = FeedForward(d_ff, d_model)
        self.dropout2 = Dropout(rate)
        self.add_norm2 = AddNormalization()

    def build_graph(self):
        input_layer = Input(shape=(self.sequence_length, self.d_model))
        return Model(inputs=[input_layer], outputs=self.call(input_layer, None, True))

    def call(self, x, padding_mask, training):
        ...

Similar changes can be done to the DecoderLayer class too.

Once we have the necessary changes in place, we can proceed to created instances of the EncoderLayer and DecoderLayer classes, and print out their summaries as follows:

from encoder import EncoderLayer
from decoder import DecoderLayer

encoder = EncoderLayer(enc_seq_length, h, d_k, d_v, d_model, d_ff, dropout_rate)
encoder.build_graph().summary()

decoder = DecoderLayer(dec_seq_length, h, d_k, d_v, d_model, d_ff, dropout_rate)
decoder.build_graph().summary()

The resulting summary for the encoder is the following:

Model: "model"
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Layer (type)                   Output Shape         Param #     Connected to                     
==================================================================================================
 input_1 (InputLayer)           [(None, 5, 512)]     0           []                               
                                                                                                  
 multi_head_attention_18 (Multi  (None, 5, 512)      131776      ['input_1[0][0]',                
 HeadAttention)                                                   'input_1[0][0]',                
                                                                  'input_1[0][0]']                
                                                                                                  
 dropout_32 (Dropout)           (None, 5, 512)       0           ['multi_head_attention_18[0][0]']
                                                                                                  
 add_normalization_30 (AddNorma  (None, 5, 512)      1024        ['input_1[0][0]',                
 lization)                                                        'dropout_32[0][0]']             
                                                                                                  
 feed_forward_12 (FeedForward)  (None, 5, 512)       2099712     ['add_normalization_30[0][0]']   
                                                                                                  
 dropout_33 (Dropout)           (None, 5, 512)       0           ['feed_forward_12[0][0]']        
                                                                                                  
 add_normalization_31 (AddNorma  (None, 5, 512)      1024        ['add_normalization_30[0][0]',   
 lization)                                                        'dropout_33[0][0]']             
                                                                                                  
==================================================================================================
Total params: 2,233,536
Trainable params: 2,233,536
Non-trainable params: 0
__________________________________________________________________________________________________

While the resulting summary for the decoder is the following:

Model: "model_1"
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Layer (type)                   Output Shape         Param #     Connected to                     
==================================================================================================
 input_2 (InputLayer)           [(None, 5, 512)]     0           []                               
                                                                                                  
 multi_head_attention_19 (Multi  (None, 5, 512)      131776      ['input_2[0][0]',                
 HeadAttention)                                                   'input_2[0][0]',                
                                                                  'input_2[0][0]']                
                                                                                                  
 dropout_34 (Dropout)           (None, 5, 512)       0           ['multi_head_attention_19[0][0]']
                                                                                                  
 add_normalization_32 (AddNorma  (None, 5, 512)      1024        ['input_2[0][0]',                
 lization)                                                        'dropout_34[0][0]',             
                                                                  'add_normalization_32[0][0]',   
                                                                  'dropout_35[0][0]']             
                                                                                                  
 multi_head_attention_20 (Multi  (None, 5, 512)      131776      ['add_normalization_32[0][0]',   
 HeadAttention)                                                   'input_2[0][0]',                
                                                                  'input_2[0][0]']                
                                                                                                  
 dropout_35 (Dropout)           (None, 5, 512)       0           ['multi_head_attention_20[0][0]']
                                                                                                  
 feed_forward_13 (FeedForward)  (None, 5, 512)       2099712     ['add_normalization_32[1][0]']   
                                                                                                  
 dropout_36 (Dropout)           (None, 5, 512)       0           ['feed_forward_13[0][0]']        
                                                                                                  
 add_normalization_34 (AddNorma  (None, 5, 512)      1024        ['add_normalization_32[1][0]',   
 lization)                                                        'dropout_36[0][0]']             
                                                                                                  
==================================================================================================
Total params: 2,365,312
Trainable params: 2,365,312
Non-trainable params: 0
__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Further Reading

This section provides more resources on the topic if you are looking to go deeper.

Books

Papers

Summary

In this tutorial, you discovered how to implement the complete Transformer model, and create padding and look-ahead masks.

Specifically, you learned:

  • How to create a padding mask for the encoder and decoder. 
  • How to create a look-ahead mask for the decoder. 
  • How to join the Transformer encoder and decoder into a single model. 
  • How to print out a summary of the encoder and decoder layers.

Do you have any questions?
Ask your questions in the comments below and I will do my best to answer.

The post Joining the Transformer Encoder and Decoder, and Masking appeared first on Machine Learning Mastery.



Source link

More articles

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

Latest article